Regional Content Customized for Canada

This page contains IO Essentials resources that have been customized for use by the Canadian healthcare professional.

Stage II Melanoma Treatment Videos

In this video series, Dr. D. Scott Ernst, MD, FRCPC Head, Division of Medical Oncology and Professor of Medicine at the London Regional Cancer Program, discusses the use of treatments in patients with melanoma. The videos address whether to treat, the risks versus benefits of treatment and the differences between the stages IIA, B and C. The content is customized for Canada. This content was recorded in March 2024.

What is stage II melanoma?

Is stage II melanoma at high risk for coming back?

How is stage IIA melanoma treated?

How is stage IIB and C melanoma treated?

How do you weigh the benefits and risks of treatment versus no treatment?

What are the side effects of treatment?

New videos from the experts!

Sequencing of Therapies in Stage IV Melanoma

In this video series, Dr Marcus Butler, Clinical Head of the Immune Monitoring Team at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, discusses sequencing strategies for Stage IV melanoma. The videos address strategies for neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, first-line and subsequent lines of therapy, single-agent and combination immunotherapy, BRAF-targeted therapy, the management of brain metastases, clinical trials, and management of refractory disease. The videos were recorded on August 17, 2023.

When should neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy be considered in stage IV disease?

Which immunotherapy should be used for front-line BRAF wild-type patients?

Which combination should be used after progression post PD-1 therapy?

What is the role for BRAF-targeted therapy?

How should strategies be personalised for management of brain metastases?

Strategies for refractory disease

When should a clinical trial be considered?


The Decision-Support Tool has been updated to reflect changes in therapeutic options, including emerging options and longer-term data on established regimens.

We’d like to thank Taylor Tomco and Kathy Barnard from the Save Your Skin Foundation for their careful review of this content update.

New! Stage IV Decision-Support Tool

Welcome to this guide, Stage IV Melanoma Treatment Options: Making the Decision That’s Right for You. You can use this guide to discuss therapeutic options for managing Stage IV melanoma with your patients.

The document addresses

  • Stage IV melanoma clinical picture, biomarkers and pathology, and disease and patient factors involved in decision making
  • Efficacy, safety, administration, and family-planning aspects of targeted therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and other therapies used for stage IV melanoma
  • Management of brain metastases, including radiation therapy
  • Clinical trials, including an overview of emerging therapies being studied
  • Survivorship and advanced care planning
  • Diagnosis (including biopsy techniques) as well as an overview of imaging
  • Practical patient resources

Developed in collaboration with Save Your Skin Foundation.

New videos from oncology experts!

Immunotherapy Combination Therapy: Current and Emerging Approaches

In this video series, Bonnie Leung, MN-N (F)P, BC Cancer, Vancouver, discusses current and emerging perspectives on the use of combination immunotherapy in oncology. These videos, developed for the Canadian audience, discuss the rationale for combination therapy, the data supporting the combination approaches, patient selection for combination immunotherapy versus other options, managing the more complex side effects associated with this approach, as well as new strategies of combined immunotherapy. We hope that this content will be useful for you to select and manage the best immunotherapy regimens for your cancer patients.

Rationale for Combined Immunotherapy

What are the data to support the use of combination Immunotherapy?

Patient Selection for Combination Immunotherapy

Managing the Complex Adverse Effect Profile of Combination Immunotherapy

Emerging Strategies for Combination Immunotherapy

COVID-19 Vaccine Recommendations for IO Patients

In the following videos, Massey Nematollahi, RN, MScN, OCN, CON©, Immuno-Oncology Clinical Nurse Specialist at William Osler Health System in Brampton, Ontario, discusses the use of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with cancer, particularly in those receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The content is customised for the Canadian region. This content was recorded on August 20, 2021 and is reflective of the vaccine approvals as of that date. For an updated list of the currently available vaccines approved in Canada, please click here: Canada – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker (

1 Review of available COVID 19 vaccines

2 Timing of receipt of vaccines

3 COVID 19 vaccines and ICIs

4 Addressing frequently asked questions and myths about COVID 19 vaccines

5 Addressing COVID 19 vaccine hesitancy

Stage III Decision- Support Materials

Updated Stage III Decision Support Tool

The Decision-Support Tool has been updated with information you need to know about outcomes for Stage III melanoma, long-term data for adjuvant therapies, and additional resources, including content specific for caregivers.

Developed in collaboration with Save Your Skin Foundation.

New Stage III Companion Piece

Want to learn how to use the Stage III Decision-Support Tool? Peruse frequently asked questions about Stage III melanoma and learn how to use the support tool to guide your decision making.

Developed in collaboration with Save Your Skin Foundation.

Care Step Pathways

This section provides stand-alone Care Step Pathways (CSPs) that have been customized for the Canadian audience. We wish to thank Massey Nematollahi, RN, MScN,OCN, CON©, Immuno-Oncology Clinical Nurse Specialist at William Osler Health System in Brampton, Ontario, for thoughtful review of these materials.

List of CSPs

For Immunotherapy (Checkpoint Inhibitors):

Patient Resources

Action Plans

This section contains the customizable action plans for patients with different tumor types that have been customized for the Canadian audience.